Hydropower: The Key to Cheap Electricity?

When it comes to the production of electricity, you might certainly be aware that renewable energy is far better than using fossil fuel. Eliminating, fossil fuel from the list of candidates, we are left with a few different options to consider when choosing the best, most reliable source of power.

In this article, Four Earths present you information on what hydropower is, how it can provide cheap electricity, and how its use could have a positive effect on your future bills.

What is Hydropower, and how does it work?


Simply put, it is a renewable energy source that uses water to turn the motion of a turbine which then creates electricity. It is considered a “clean” energy source because it doesn’t produce environment-damaging emissions, unlike coal or oil. While it is difficult to have an entire country running on purely water-generated electricity, Hydroelectric dams can be used to supplement other forms of energy production, such as solar and wind power.

Dams are an important part of electricity grids because it helps us to meet our electricity needs at a lower cost than other sources. In fact, power generated this way is on the list of “the cheapest sources of energy”. Part of the reason it is so affordable is that once a dam has been built, the resources (water) that are required to generate power come completely free of charge – by blocking a natural stream or through the rain.

…Alright, how does it work?

Hydropower is a clean and renewable energy source that can provide cheap electricity. Dams are the most common method of generating water-based electricity. In the technical sense, a dam is a large reservoir of water that is let out in controlled amounts to generate power.

Large amounts of gravitational potential energy are stored in the water contained in a dam. Gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic energy as water is released from a dam, which turns the turbines, which in turn drives the generator to create electricity. 

The turbines are located at the top of the dam and use the kinetic energy of flowing water to turn the propeller-like blades. These blades create electricity by moving through a magnetic field and turning a rotary magnet.

Using this method of electricity generation has many benefits, including the ability to provide power in areas where other forms of energy are not available.

Pros and Cons of Hydropower


  1. Hydropower uses no fossil fuels, so it doesn’t contribute to climate change.
  2. It provides reliable and cost-effective electricity in remote areas.
  3. It can help reduce the dependence on other forms of electricity generation, such as coal or oil.
  4. Some dams are located near major transportation hubs, which could make them useful for powering urban areas.


  1. While they are cheap to run, hydroelectric dams can be quite expensive to construct.
  2. Dams can release large quantities of water, which must be disposed of properly.
  3. Many hydropower plants use water from rivers and lakes that are subject to pollution and ecological degradation.
  4. Dams can be vulnerable to floods and earthquakes. The history of hydropower has incidents of floods and tsunamis linked to it.

Hydropower costs are undoubtedly lower than other means of generating power, but the problems with hydroelectric dams have created a number of challenges for the technology. Hydroelectric dams are typically built on rivers or other bodies of water, and their main purpose is to generate electricity. However, these dams also create a number of challenges.

One major issue with hydroelectric dams is their impact on the environment. Hydroelectric dams can cause significant damage to habitats and species, as well as disrupt natural ecosystems.

Another challenge with hydroelectric dams is their impact on downstream communities. Dams often result in the displacement of people living in the immediate neighborhood, who are forced to relocate due to construction activities. This often leads to increased poverty and social inequality in downstream areas, as well as decreased access to resources and services.

Despite these challenges, hydroelectric projects remain a key component of the global renewable energy industry. However, it is important that these projects are properly designed and managed in order to avoid environmental damage and social inequality.

Causes for Increased Interest in Hydropower

Hydropower is a clean and renewable source of energy that has been in use for centuries. The environmental impacts of hydropower are clear: it produces no greenhouse gases and doesn’t require mining or drilling.

The best part is, it’s not just earth-friendly – it’s also affordable. In the United States, Dams are one of the most cost-effective ways to generate electricity. The average cost of producing a megawatt-hour of electricity using water is $46, while the average cost of producing a megawatt-hour of coal-based electricity is around $53.

Additionally, it is considered to be the most efficient method of electricity generation, since it converts 90% of its energy into electricity. This is in contrast with most fossil fuel-powered means of generating electricity, which stand at around 60%.

In addition to its affordability, another key advantage of this method of power generation is its variability. Unlike methods of generating renewable energy, which operates throughout the day,  power generation in hydroelectric dams can be controlled.


Renewable hydropower is a clean source of electricity that has been around for centuries. It’s often considered to be the key to cheap electricity, as it only requires capital investment for the construction process and can provide power at a lower cost than other nonrenewable forms of energy. For countries looking for a cheaper source of energy, especially those that are struggling to pay for crude oil imports, building dams may be the perfect solution.

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